“Création à Lubumbashi d’une plate-forme dénommée Neo-CONAKAT”, ACP, 16 August 2015. Il est en effet fort possible que le découpage ait été motivé par un désir de réduire le pouvoir des élites de Lubumbashi, et de Katumbi en particulier. Proceeds allegedly function as a parallel source of central government funding, bypassing the scrutiny of parliament and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). “Discours complet de Kyungu, Moise Katumbi et l’arrivée de Muyambo ce matin”, YouTube, 23 December 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=RazvlD9TFv8; “Le grand retour de Moïse Katumbi à Lubumbashi”, Le Carnet de Colette Braeckman, 23 December 2014.Hide Footnote, Kabila reacted during a meeting with the Katangan elite in January 2015, from which Katumbi, Kyungu and Muyambo were absent. 3/20/2019 09:09:00 am 0 Politique. “DRC Mining Industry, First Quarter 2016”, Federation of Congolese Enterprises (FEC), May 2016, p. 4. [fn]Congo-Central, Haut-Katanga, Kinshasa and Lualaba provinces are the only provinces that would not receive equalisation fund transfers. Whether Katumbi and Kabila will ever contest an election head to head depends on future turns in the unfolding political drama, but if events since Katumbi announced his candidacy are an indication, the battle would be hard fought. Crisis Group interview, FEC representative, Lubumbashi, March 2016; “Kolwezi: la suspension des activités de Glencore préjudiciera l’économie”, Radio Okapi, 11 September 2015; “Le Katanga se serre la ceinture … de cuivre”, The Politics of Découpage: The End of “Katanga”. Accurate national and provincial tax revenue figures are difficult to obtain. Line: 192 [fn]“Avec la rétrocession, le Katanga serait plus développé, affirme son ministre des Finances”, Radio Okapi, 15 January 2015. Many observers believe they were an attempt by Lubakat elite to pressure the president and secure their positions in the government and security forces. [fn]Crisis Group email correspondence, civil society actor, Lubumbashi, October 2015.Hide Footnote The UN group of experts concluded in 2014 that “the tolerance of Numbi’s support [to Bakata Katanga] indicates acquiescence at the highest levels of government”. cit. “Inauguration à Lubumbashi d’une fontaine à la place Moïse Tshombe”, ACP, 6 June 2010. Facing hearings, growing pressure and intimidation, he was hospitalised on 13 May. “RDC: Joseph Kabila autorisé à s’accrocher au pouvoir”, Afrikarabia.com, 12 May 2016. The Mission is reviewing its military and police deployments in areas at high risk of election-related violence and enhancing its ability to protect UN personnel in urban centres, including Lubumbashi, by developing evacuation plans and deploying helicopters and armoured personnel carriers. Crisis Group interviews, civil society leader and opposition politician, Brussels, February 2016. Colonel Albert Tuzu (1970) CND 5. [fn]“La tribune de Muzito: la RDC, un Etat sans budget”, Le Phare, 6 April 2015. Adresse: 24, avenue Photopao, Kinshasa/Mont Ngafula, RDC. [fn]“Rapport Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), RDC 2014”, December 2015. “RDC: l’opposant Moïse Katumbi dénonce l’enquête ouverte contre ses ‘mercenaires’”. Another interesting example was a 12 October 2015 letter by the ANR’s Haut-Katanga provincial director to the acting governor requesting he no longer invite UNAFEC and other G7 members to provincial security council meetings, on file with Crisis Group.Hide Footnote The central government and PPRD have also reinvigorated attempts to retain support in Katanga, including by encouraging new parties, or factions within existing parties. Gédéon, then leader of Mai Mai Gédéon, surrendered to MONUSCO in 2006 and was arrested. The former province has a strong sense of identity derived from its wealth, history (including brief independence) and powerful, ethnic-based “cultural associations” that permeate its political, cultural and economic life. L’ex-province du Katanga, en République démocratique du Congo (RDC), découpée en quatre nouvelles provinces en 2015 (Haut-Katanga, Tanganyika, Haut-Lomami et Lualaba), est depuis cette même année en proie à des querelles entre le camp du président Joseph Kabila et celui de ses adversaires, presque tous ses anciens alliés. The economic downturn will also increase resentments and make problems harder to solve. “Avec la rétrocession, le Katanga serait plus développé, affirme son ministre des Finances”, Radio Okapi, 15 January 2015. The Congo’s fragile institutions are under great strain. Crisis Group interview, Kinshasa-based diplomats, March 2016. ²Kalonji was arrested 30 Dec 1961 but escaped 7 Sep 1962 and set up a new government that was terminated 1 Oct … During this short period, Tshibal remained in regular contact with Katumbi. Une stratégie de criminalisation qui n’a pas mené à des violences ouvertes, mais la tension demeure. [fn]For a comprehensive analysis of Katangan armed groups and conflicts, see Georges Berghezan, “Groupes armés au Katanga, épicentre de multiples conflits”, GRIP, 9 June 2015; Michelle Brown and Michael Boyce, “DR Congo: Katanga in crisis”, Refugees International, 26 June 2014.Hide Footnote There is also a conflict between the pygmy (Twa) and Bantu (Luba). Article 70 establishes a five-year term, renewable once. cit., pp. Crisis Group interviews, UN official and diplomats, Lubumbashi, March 2016. The concerns are at local, provincial and national levels. 55-58; “Out of Africa, British offshore secrecy and Congo’s missing $1.5 billion”, Global Witness, May 2016. [fn]“Equity in Extractives”, Africa Progress Report 2013, Africa Progress Panel, pp. [fn]“RDC: l’opposant Moïse Katumbi accusé d’avoir recours à des ‘mercenaires’”, RFI, 4 May 2016; “Intégralité de l’entretien du Président Joseph Kabila avec les notables Katangais”, YouTube, Several well-placed sources and local leaders in Katanga believe the group serves the interests of political and economic elites at the national and provincial levels. Crisis Group interview, Congolese opposition legislator, Kinshasa, June 2015; “Kinshasa: l’ex député Vano Kiboko condamné à 3 ans de prison”, Radio Okapi, 16 September 2015. En partie grâce à l’aide de son allié de l’époque, Katumbi, il a pu protéger les intérêts économiques de sa famille et de ses proches dans les secteurs bancaire, agricole, et surtout minier ; lui et sa famille détiendraient ainsi des permis d’extraction de cuivre et cobalt au Katanga. En juillet 2017, Celestin Kanyama a été nommé directeur général des écoles de formation de la police nationale. However, it rolled back provincial political autonomy in the 2011 constitutional reform. Adresse: 5, avenue Oranger, Kinshasa/Gombe, RDC. The announcement that he was being investigated prompted widespread demonstrations in Lubumbashi, Katanga’s major city, and the would-be candidate left the country for medical checks. During that period, Kyungu, Joseph Kabila John Numbi (a key security adviser) were all involved in channelling support to local armed militia groups (Mai-Mai) set-up to fight Rwanda and its proxies. Kabila is reportedly aloof in dealing with Katangan elites, which is taken badly in his home province. However Kyungu was able to produce court documents on 5 February that confirmed his leadership of the party. Erik Gobbers, op. L’hostilité croissante entre Kabila et ses anciens camarades devient manifeste en 2015, lorsqu’il prend la décision surprise d’appliquer les dispositions de la Constitution concernant la création de nouvelles provinces. This should be in conjunction with a financial monitoring mechanism, so that decentralisation does not simply equate to decentralisation of corruption. 113-115. This reflects the close ties between this community and the Bemba, which together form the “Espace Sempya-Lwanzo”. The government also reached out to the World Bank and IMF for support. The population of Katanga and other opposition parties have stayed quiet through this round of confrontation, but no one thinks the problems have been resolved. During Kabila’s first elected term (2006-2011), the government made incremental progress adopting laws needed to implement découpage and decentralisation. Crisis Group interviews, diplomats and analysts, Kinshasa and Lubumbashi, March 2016. Including the National Party for Democracy and Development (PND), for which Katumbi’s brother, Abraham Kitanika Soriano, is a candidate for future provincial elections and the Conservateurs de la nature et démocrates (CONADE), a new party led by the brother of Katumbi’s political adviser, Salomon Idi Kalonda Della. 229-230. [fn]Tweets by @AmbHenriMova, PPRD secretary general, 18-20 October 2015. Other parts of the administration, such as taxation, remain unchanged. There are widespread concerns about implementation, particularly the lack of financial and material resources for both the transfer of responsibilities and the financial viability of the new provinces, as well as the short timeframe to deal with the issues ahead of the elections and the overall financial viability of many of the entities. Katumbi in particular has been identified to a large degree with it, for instance appealing for a daily two-minute prayer at noon in support of the “democratic struggle”. This assumed an overtly political dimension after the former Katanga governor, Moïse Katumbi, declared his candidacy for president, provoking Kabila to initiate investigations and issue a warrant for his arrest for undermining national security. Different communities, migrant and local, have fought for control of land, jobs and political office. Il convient dès lors de modifier l'annexe I bis du règlement (CE) no 1183/2005 en conséquence. [fn]For the perceptions of découpage, Crisis Group interviews, Congolese politician, Brussels, October 2015; Katangan elite and Lubumbashi based-analyst, Lubumbashi, May-June 2015; former community leader, Lubumbashi, March 2016. In addition, within the former province, poorer areas feel disenfranchised by both the central and provincial governments. Support for Katangan identity is not inherently illegitimate, and prospect of a strong separatist movement is currently remote, but the risk is that politicians will mobilise armed groups and networks to manipulate separatist sentiment for their political ends. Katumbi a alors annoncé qu’il importerait 100 000 tonnes de maïs et les revendrait à un meilleur prix que celui proposé par les deux gouverneurs. Numéro de passeport diplomatique: DB0001939 (délivré le 4.5.2017, valable jusqu'au 3.5.2022). Function: view, File: /home/ah0ejbmyowku/public_html/application/controllers/Main.php Ces deux éléments ont augmenté la frustration au sein de la population. [fn]This was the opinion of traditional chiefs who met in Lubumbashi, 2-16 December 2006. He escaped in an outbreak of 1,000 prisoners in Lubumbashi in 2011. Overall the majority achieved its goal but was widely criticised for manipulation. Katumbi became a Kabila supporter on his return and was elected Katanga governor in 2007 by the votes of 94 of the 102 members in the new provincial assembly. La ville actuelle est née de deux villages, Nshasa et Ntamo (plus tard appelé Kintamo), dominés par les Bahumbu et fréquentés par les pêcheurs et les marchands Batéké. However, the constitution still unequivocally limits the president to two terms. The Group includes: the AU, UN, European Union (EU), the International Organisation of La Francophonie (OIF), the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR). His outreach to other Lubakat leaders seems not to have worked so far, and it remains to be seen how much découpage will reconfigure the political allegiances and dynamics between elites and the general population. Numéro de carte d'identité militaire: 1-64-86-22311-29. Huit Mulongo, leader of the “Conscience républicaine pour la démocratie et le développement”, spoke out against a constitutional amendment on 28 October 2014. “UNAFEC: la destitution de Gabriel Kyungu qualifiée de non statutaire”, Radio Okapi, 25 September 2015; another example of interference in the internal affairs of parties was when the interior minister recognised Patrick Bologna, a legislator close to the government, as national president of the ACO, whose leader is Danny Banza. Berwouts, “DR Congo’s electoral process is at an impasse. The name applies to a variety of peoples who speak closely related languages and share culture and political history, derived from the Luba kingdom of the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries. 152-162, 2013; “Sicomines project to start producing copper before end-2015”, The Economist Intelligence Unit, 22 May 2015; “China’s ‘infrastructure for minerals’ deal gets reality check in Congo”, Reuters, 9 July 2015. Local elites, especially Lubakat, grumble about receiving too little attention. Le présent règlement entre en vigueur le jour suivant celui de sa publication au Journal officiel de l'Union européenne. En effet, la région est source de 71 pour cent des exportations du pays, et a été son principal bastion électoral. According to the latter report (p. 29), the percentage of poor in Katanga is 87.8, against a national average of 71.3 per cent.Hide Footnote Local elites often use central government failure to transfer revenue to justify lack of investment in northern Katangan development. “DRC: The Impact”, op. One factor, failure to finance provincial administrations properly, has been compounded in Katanga by a sense of entitlement based on the huge contribution its mineral exports make to the national budget. “RDC: l’opposant Moïse Katumbi accusé d’avoir recours à des ‘mercenaires’”, RFI, 4 May 2016; Moïse Katumbi’s Collision with the President. Despite its riches, large infrastructural and developmental inequality persists in Katanga. Ramazani Shadari, ancien vice-Premier ministre et ministre de l'intérieur et de la sécurité. However, resentment quickly surfaced, as predominantly northern Katangan politicians staffed the new administration and its security forces, while the province’s south was deprived of the greater share of power and representation it felt entitled to as the main source of mineral wealth. Katumba Mwanké, governor of Katanga, 1998–2001, was from the same region as Katumbi, whom he described as “certainly one of the better hopes our country has today” in his Ma Vérité (Nice, 2013, posthumous), pp. His agency is deeply involved in repression of civil society groups, raising the possibility that Katangans in the national government will be increasingly involved in repressing political activity at home, further heightening resentments. “Rapport Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), RDC 2014”, December 2015. [fn]For more on Katangan history, see Crisis Group Africa Report N°103, Katanga: The Congo’s Forgotten Crisis, 9 January 2006; and Crawford Young, Politics in the Congo (New Jersey, 1965). Eight policemen were indicted and five convicted. 150,000, including several “notables”, signed a petition to parliament opposing découpage.Hide Footnote Several prominent people, including then Governor Katumbi and Provincial Assembly Speaker Kyungu, spoke against découpage, threatened to organise petitions to reunify the province and argued for keeping “Katanga” in the names of the new provinces. Dans ses fonctions de vice-Premier ministre et ministre de l'intérieur et de la sécurité jusqu'en février 2018, Ramazani Shadari a été officiellement responsable des services de police et de sécurité ainsi que de la coordination du travail des gouverneurs provinciaux. 6-7; “Intégralité de l’entretien du Président Joseph Kabila avec les notables Katangais”, YouTube, 6 January 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=QHAPBLFk8EA. Stefaan Marysse, Claudine Tshimanga, op. Eight policemen were indicted and five convicted. Bogumil Jewsiecki (1978). La réaction ne tarde pas. A constitutional amendment early that year, favoured him, as it allowed a candidate with a plurality but less than 50 per cent of the vote to avoid a run-off in which the opposition could have united behind a single candidate. cit., pp. Congo-Central, Haut-Katanga, Kinshasa and Lualaba provinces are the only provinces that would not receive equalisation fund transfers. The presidential family has interests in Digitalcongo, and several other Katangan political leaders own or are close to a TV station. The presiding judge later said she came under political pressure to deliver this verdict; “RD Congo: une juge de Lubumbashi affirme avoir subi des pressions pour faire condamner Katumbi”, The Way Ahead: Repairing Kinshasa-Katanga Relations, Planning is underway at MONUSCO to boost early-warning capacity for election-related violence by creating mobile teams to monitor human rights and political issues in Lubumbashi (in addition to Kinshasa and Goma). There is a growing political dimension to the economic frustrations felt by Katangan elites and population that feeds into tensions with the centre. For an overview, see “DRC: The Impact”, op. The découpage was rushed, ill planned, under-resourced and coincided with a budget crisis, due mostly to the drop in demand for Katanga’s minerals. On 8-9 June, some 100 Congolese opposition politicians and civil society representatives met in Genval, Belgium. Crisis Group email correspondence with diplomatic sources, Nairobi, June 2016; Crisis Group interviews, Congolese analyst, Kinshasa July 2016. Resolving the DRC’s national and provincial problems ultimately requires trust and dialogue, as well as electoral progress. Line: 479 Le Katanga au cœur de l’histoire nationale. “Identité katangaise ou nostalgie du Katanga finissant”, Tout Lubumbashi, 6 July 2015. A credible national dialogue to discuss how to manage a transition, a commitment not to change the constitution for political purposes or prolong the transition to preserve the status quo, and measurable progress toward elections are urgently needed. Crisis Group interview, political leader, Lubumbashi, May 2015. Katumbi does not have old links to armed groups, so the high level of political tension is not linked to the outbreaks of armed violence described above, though some of his allies, in particular UNAFEC, could be involved in street clashes. Roger Kibelisa a donc porté atteinte à l'état de droit et a fait obstacle à une sortie de crise consensuelle et pacifique en vue de la tenue d'élections en RDC. Joseph Kabila’s adviser, Katumba Mwanké, then Katanga’s governor, facilitated his return and remained a close ally and important intermediary with the president until his death in 2011. See also “Memo à l’attention des Notables Luba du Katanga”, Lubumbashi, 25 January 2014. The “Lobito Corridor” project is included in the “Investments opportunities brief (IOB) Consultative Process: Key findings and recommendations”, ICGLR, Office of the UN Special Envoy for the Great Lakes Region, 2015, p. 32. The platform brings in Katumbi allies, including the G7, thus forming a potentially potent new alliance. Le mécontentement envers Kinshasa gagne du terrain face aux manœuvres politiques et à une situation économique dégradée, tandis que la région est un enjeu majeur pour le président Kabila, déterminé à se maintenir au pouvoir. Numéro de passeport de la RDC: OB0814241. Crisis Group email correspondence, Lubumbashi-based civil society representative, Nairobi, October 2015. MONUSCO document, dated 5 November 2011, in possession of Crisis Group. La légère reprise des exportations en 2016 (avoisinant 1,02 million de tonnes) est largement due au lancement de la production de la Sicomines, une co-entreprise (joint-venture) établie dans le cadre de l’accord Chine-RDC de 2009 qui prévoit un investissement chinois de 3,2 milliards de dollars dans l’infrastructure, remboursé par le cuivre produit par la Sicomines. En mars, le gouverneur de l’époque, Kazembe, et son homologue de la province de Lualaba, Muyej, ont pu en importer d’Afrique du Sud pour un prix compris entre 20 000 (14,5 dollars) et 25 000 francs congolais (18 dollars) le sac de 25 kilogrammes. 23-29. En mai 2016, des poursuites judiciaires ont ainsi été lancées contre Katumbi, et conduit à sa condamnation à trois ans de prison pour spoliation de biens. Numbi appeared as a witness at the trial that was organised from June 2011. À ce titre, Ramazani Shadari a donc contribué, en les planifiant, dirigeant ou commettant, à des actes constituant de graves violations des droits de l'homme en RDC. “Arguments pour le découpage, Honorable Kansabala”. Nowhere are the problems as stark as in former Katanga, whose new landlocked provinces of Tanganyika and Haut-Lamami are among DRC’s poorest, while Haut Katanga and Lualaba are among the richest. cit., pp. “RDC: l’opposant Katumbi condamné à 3 ans de prison pour un conflit immobilier”, Radio Okapi, 22 June 2016. On 14 July 2015, the president signed decrees adapting the national police and immigration command structures to reflect the new provinces. [fn]“DR Congo: Katanga in crisis”, field note, Refugees International, 26 June 2014. ( VIDEO ). Cependant, et malgré sa détermination, son habileté politique et le contrôle qu'il exerce sur les ressources étatiques, il n’arrive à acquérir ni popularité ni légitimité auprès de sa population. But civil society organisations collected a million signatures on a petition imploring Katumbi to stay. In early 2015, partly in reaction to the growing opposition, the government decided to implement découpage, as foreseen in the 2010 constitution, increasing the number of provinces from eleven to 26. [fn]“Statistiques Minières de 2003 à 2012”, Ministère des Mines, DRC, September 2013; “Mining industry annual report 2014”, The Chamber of Business of the DRC (FEC), 2014; “DRC now Africa’s biggest copper producer”, African Business Magazine, 30 May 2014. 229-230.Hide Footnote, The central government has clamped down on these calls for a new province and other elements of dissent. “Report of the Secretary-General on [MONUSCO]”, UNSC S/. Enfin, il peut toujours utiliser ses ressources personnelles pour se maintenir dans le jeu politique. cit., for links of those named to Bakata Katanga.Hide Footnote Its reported links suggest a continued pattern of politicians using armed groups for leverage; local leaders believe, an observer said, “that Joseph Kabila only understands the language of rebellion”. Most of the opposition has refused to take part, arguing it would legitimise delays or demanding broad international engagement and guarantees. La pauvreté est terrible. 754, 29 September 2015.Hide Footnote Katangans remain prominent in the presidential cabinet, including Théodore Mugalu, the influential chief of staff at the presidency. Overall, Katanga owes its particular place in Congolese politics to two factors: the Katangan origin of the president and his predecessor and its economic weight. Les nouveaux gouvernements provinciaux n’avaient ni les connections régionales ni la stratégie adéquate pour faire face à ce problème. “Carnage des adeptes du prophète Joseph Mukungubila Mutombo”, Rapport d’enquête, Action Citoyenne pour la Bonne Gouvernance, Centre pour la Justice et la Réconciliation, Humanisme et Droits Humains, Observatoire Congolais pour la Radioactivité, Justicia ASBL, Lubumbashi, 21 January 2014. Crisis Group interviews, Katangan elite, Lubumbashi, May-June 2015 and Lubumbashi residents, March 2016. The approaching elections necessitate further local action to deal with armed groups. Sous son gouvernorat, la province mettait également l’accent sur la stabilité des prix sur le marché en prévoyant des importations en cas de besoin. [fn]Often with the collusion of soldiers and policemen. In Tanganyika, the civil society platform SOCITANG pushed provincial legislators in 2012 to have their then district become a découpage pilot project, pointing to the supposed gains made by previously created new Congolese provinces. cit., p. 16.Hide Footnote, Violence could flare up unexpectedly and exacerbate humanitarian problems. Cobalt production is projected to fall by 21.3 per cent, and production of all other minerals is also expected to decline. En sa qualité de ministre des communications et des médias, Lambert Mende est donc responsable d'avoir fait obstacle à une solution consensuelle et pacifique en vue de la tenue d'élections en RDC, notamment par des actes de répression. Société Civile du Tanganika (SOCITANG), memorandum, 17 November 2012; Crisis Group interviews, political party and civil society representatives, Lubumbashi, May-June 2015. Coup d'État militaire puis président par intérim avec l'appui de l'Assemblée nationale. ), Conjonctures Congolaises 2012 (Tervuren, 2013), p. 40.Hide Footnote Katanga, which exported 68,069 tons in 2014, also accounts for approximately 55 per cent of the world’s cobalt production. “Democratic Republic of Congo; country mining guide”, KPMG Global Mining Institute, 2014. In the run-up to the 2011 elections, a seemingly disillusioned Katumbi announced he would leave politics. [fn]In the run-up to celebrations of national independence day in Kindu (Maniema) in 2016, Kabila spent several weeks in the ex-province, attending the conference of provincial governors in Lubumbashi and inaugurating several infrastructure projects in his home province, Tanganyika.Hide Footnote Meanwhile, other provinces want to rebalance politics by transferring power to another region – the east-west cleavage is particularly potent – reflecting the principle of “la géopolitique”, wherein regional quotas and ethnic identity form a crucial part of Congolese politics. For a comprehensive profile, see Jean Omasombo, Biographie des acteurs de la Troisième République, CEP, Kinshasa, CERDAP, Lubumbashi, and Africa Museum Tervuren (Brussels, 2009). 25-29; Mining Minister Martin Kabewelulu stated that “assets were ceded in total transparency”; see “Congo loses out on $1.4 bln as mine assets sold cheap – Annan panel”, Reuters, 10 May 2013. Mova Sakanyi was ambassador in Brussels, 2009-2015.Hide Footnote Though he has a small political base, he has quickly gained prominence and concentrated on refurbishing the PPRD’s machine. Copy of speech on file with Crisis Group. This echoed earlier acts, such as when Katumbi erected a statue of secessionist leader Moïse Tshombé in Lubumbashi’s main square, also renamed in his honour. Crisis Group Report. Around the same time, a group also attacked the airport of Kindu, Maniema province. Un exercice d'équilibriste à haut risque. Gécamines owns the sites. Crisis Group interviews, civil society representatives, academics, and diplomat, Lubumbashi and Kolwezi, May-June 2015.