Another accessory that might be especially useful in the early stages after the assembler-breakthrough is the disassembler, a device that can disassemble an object while creating a three-dimensional map of its molecular configuration. Theoretical transhumanism. In the case of the most crucial future technologies – super­intelligence and molecular manufacturing – such analyses have been done. Molecular nanotechnology will ultimately make it possible to construct compact computing systems performing at least 1021 operations per second; machine parts of any size made of nearly flawless diamond; cell-repair machines that can enter cells and repair most kinds of damage, in all likelihood including frostbite (see “What is cryonics? (The possibility of nanotechnology had been anticipated by Nobel Laureate physicist Richard Feynman in a now-famous after-dinner address in 1959 entitled “There is Plenty of Room at the Bottom”.) For example, one important factor in healthy life expectancy is access to good medical care. Can we not think of some more creative way of using all this matter and energy? In some ways, human minds and brains are just not designed to be happy. Religious fanaticism, superstition, and intolerance are not acceptable among transhumanists. The publication of his book The Prospect of Immortality in 1964 led to the creation of the cryonics movement. ... demain la GPA, après-demain l’utérus artificiel et le transhumanisme. An upload could have a virtual (simulated) body giving the same sensations and the same possibilities for interaction as a non-simulated body. It is simply nice to be healthy, happy and to be able to think well, quite independently of any other advantages that come from possessing these attributes. Greg Burch, David Pearce, Kathryn Aegis, and Anders Sandberg kindly offered extensive editorial comments. Simulator sickness arises because different sensory systems provide conflicting cues. However, these lesser risks must not deflect attention from the more serious concern raised by more probable existential disasters (see “Aren’t these future technologies very risky? (According to Church’s thesis, the class of Turing computable functions is identical to the class of physically computable functions.). Petites nouvelles de cette petite terre soumise à la pression d’une fraude sans commune mesure, reniant l’existence comme la vie au profit de la virtualité et de ses élucubrations. It is so easy to forget how good things can be when they are at their best. There is no scriptural basis in the Bible for assuming that God can’t get to our soul if we freeze our physical body, nor is there a single word in the Christian or Jewish scriptures, or the Quran, the Dhammapada, or the Tao Teh Ching, that prohibits cryonics. Tous les détails de l’Institut Berggruen et son fondateur, le milliardaire germano-américain Nicolas Berggruen, non seulement membre du très puissant Council of Foreign Relations mais qui a aussi toutes ses entrées au plus haut niveau de la Commission Européenne et est en … It seems more likely that there would be a continuum of differently modified or enhanced individuals, which would overlap with the continuum of as-yet unenhanced humans. For a more extensive discussion of these and many other existential risks, see Bostrom (2002). Des chercheurs de Bâle et d’Espagne ont identifié une nouvelle variante du SRAS-CoV-2 qui s’est largement répandue à travers l’Europe ces derniers mois, selon un pré-imprimé non évalué par … The concept of the singularity is often associated with Vernor Vinge, who regards it as one of the more probable scenarios for the future. such as improving the situation of the poor, rather than putting our efforts into planning for the “far” future? One exception might be the basic laws of physics, but even there it is sometimes suggested that there may be undiscovered laws (for instance, we don’t yet have an accepted theory of quantum gravity) or poorly understood consequences of known laws that could be exploited to enable things we would normally think of as physically impossible, such as creating traversable wormholes, spawning new “basement” universes, or traveling backward in time. Could they even cause our extinction?”, “If these technologies are so dangerous, should they be banned?”, “Will posthumans or superintelligent machines pose a threat to humans who aren’t augmented?”, “Existential Risks: Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazards”, “Foresight Guidelines on Molecular Nanotechnology, version 3.7”, “Nanotechnology and International Security”, The World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision, Creating Friendly AI 1.0: The Analysis and Design of Benevolent Goal Architectures, Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. The doomsday predictions of the so-called “Club of Rome” from the early 1970s have consistently turned out to be wrong. Seen in this light, signing up for cryonics, which is usually done by making a cryonics firm one of the beneficiaries of your life insurance, can look like a reasonable insurance policy. The king might have a carriage with six white horses, but you can have a car that is faster and more comfortable. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème Verre, Art du verre, Verre soufflé. JB Jeangène Vilmer @jeangene_vilmer Directeur de l'Institut de Recherche Stratégique de l'Ecole Militaire (IRSEM), ministère de la Défense - ce compte et ses tweets n'engagent que leur auteur. A common worry is that inheritable genetic modifications or other human enhancement technologies would lead to two distinct and separate species and that hostilities would inevitably develop between them. Genetic engineering is the area of biotechnology concerned with the directed alteration of genetic material. The accidental release of a self-replicating nanobot into the environment, where it would proceed to destroy the entire biosphere, is known as the “gray goo scenario”. In the postwar era, optimistic futurists tended to direct their attention more toward technological progress, such as space travel, medicine, and computers. This positive feedback effect would be powerful enough to drive an intelligence explosion that could quickly lead to the emergence of a superintelligent system of surpassing abilities. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. We see it in the myth of Prometheus, who stole the fire from Zeus and gave it to the humans, thereby permanently improving the human condition. Almost all of those who do think that there will be a singularity believe it will happen in this century, and many think it is likely to happen within several decades. Pearce believes “post-Darwinian superminds” will enjoy genetically pre-programmed well-being and be animated by “gradients of bliss”. Ici vous allez trouvez des informations du "NET" pour vous faire votre propre opinion! Transhumanism is a loosely defined movement that has developed gradually over the past two decades. An imprudently or maliciously designed super­intelligence, with goals amounting to indifference or hostility to human welfare, could cause our extinction. If some people would still choose death, that’s a choice that is of course to be regretted, but nevertheless this choice must be respected. Transhumanists insist that all beings that can experience pain have some moral status, and that posthuman persons could have at least the same level of moral status as humans have in their current form. Achieving an acceptable balance between the rights of such communities for autonomy, on the one hand, and the security concerns of outside entities and the just demands for protection of vulnerable and oppressed individuals inside these communities on the other hand, is a delicate task and a familiar challenge in political philosophy. That people should make excuses for death is understandable. This kind of deliberation is much harder than simply dismissing cloning as unnatural, but it is also more likely to result in good decisions. Parents must be allowed to choose for themselves whether to reproduce, how to reproduce, and what technological methods they use in their reproduction. en 1950. A key challenge in realizing these prospects is the bootstrap problem: how to build the first assembler. At that point one should seek to promote the development of friendly AI and to prevent unfriendly or unreliable AI systems. So what? wearable computers, smart agents, information filtering systems, visualization software, etc. A widely accepted position is that you survive so long as certain information patterns are conserved, such as your memories, values, attitudes, and emotional dispositions, and so long as there is causal continuity so that earlier stages of yourself help determine later stages of yourself. Although there are no guarantees of success, there are some things that can be done on an individual level that will improve the odds a bit: Meanwhile, we can enjoy and make the most of the opportunities that exist today for living worthwhile and meaningful lives. Who is married to your spouse? Faites vos propres recherches … François-Régis de Guenyveau. Central to Drexler’s vision of nanotechnology is the concept of the assembler. Humanity+ has been growing since its inception and especially rapidly in the last couple of years, but the task before us is both momentous and mountainous. (On the other hand, to “pave paradise to put up a parking lot” would not be glorious; the qualification “for the better” is essential.) Will transhuman technologies make us inhuman? However, the optimism of the late 19th century often degenerated into narrow-minded positivism and the belief that progress was automatic. Transhumanism in arts and culture. Transhumanists differ widely in the probability they assign to Vinge’s scenario. Biotechnology is the application of techniques and methods based on the biological sciences. – only to see it happen few years later. Transhumanists propose a much more realistic alternative: not to retreat to an imagined past, but to press ahead as intelligently as we can. A transhumanist is simply someone who advocates transhumanism (see “What is transhumanism?”). Views differ on the relative importance of these two criteria, but they can both be satisfied in the case of uploading. When it comes to life-extension and its various enabling technologies, a delay of a single week equals one million avoidable premature deaths – a weighty fact which those who argue for bans or moratoria would do well to consider carefully. Molecular nanotechnology is an anticipated manufacturing technology that will make it possible to build complex three-dimensional structures to atomic specification using chemical reactions directed by nonbiological machinery. As a result of these circumstances in the distant past, we now suffer the inevitable decline of old age: damage accumulates at a faster pace than it can be repaired; tissues and organs begin to malfunction; and then we keel over and die. Another way of looking at the same fact is that it means that many persons now enjoy lives that would not have been lived if the population had been smaller. To note that the extreme case of a war between human and posthuman persons is not the most likely scenario is not to say that there are no legitimate social concerns about the steps that may take us closer to posthumanity. Compra Berger transhumant en formation : pour une tradition d'avenir. In the case of biotechnology, we should seek to promote research into vaccines, anti-viral drugs, protective gear, sensors, and diagnostics, and to delay as long as possible the development and proliferation of biological warfare agents and the means of their weaponization. Engineering such microbes might soon become possible for increasing numbers of people. The important thing is not to be human but to be humane. The efficacy of these institutions does not depend on all citizens having equal capacities. Isn’t the probability of success too small? Elliot’s writing around the same time. The ideal social organization may be one that includes the possibility for those who so wish to form independent societies voluntarily secluded from the rest of the world, in order to pursue traditional ways of life or to experiment with new forms of communal living. There are myriad ways to contribute – organizing or participating in a local discussion group, writing articles or letters to the editor, making a financial contribution, spreading the word to friends and acquaintances, volunteering your skills, translating key documents into other languages, linking to Humanity+ from your website, attending conferences and sharing your ideas, directing your research or creative activity towards transhumanist themes, to name but a few. Inp-patrimoine @Inp_patrimoine L'Institut national du patrimoine est un établissement d'enseignement supérieur du ministère de la culture et de la communication. Nonetheless, it holds promise for the prevention and treatment of many diseases, as well as for uses in enhancement medicine. A couple of other points about uploading: Uploading should work for cryonics patients provided their brains are preserved in a sufficiently intact state. The latter alternative would probably require either the redesign of the human organism using advanced nanotechnology or its radical enhancement using some combination of technologies such as genetic engineering, psycho­pharmacology, anti-aging therapies, neural interfaces, advanced information management tools, memory enhancing drugs, wearable computers, and cognitive techniques. As computational power increases, and as sensors, effectors and displays improve, VR could begin to approximate physical reality in terms of fidelity and interactivity. Another couple of influential books were roboticist Hans Moravec’s seminal Mind Children (1988) about the future development of machine intelligence, and more recently Ray Kurzweil’s bestselling Age of Spiritual Machines (1999), which presented ideas similar to Moravec’s. It is to be hoped and expected that a good many of death’s apologists, if they were one day presented with the concrete choice between (A) getting sick, old, and dying, and (B) being given a new shot of life to stay healthy, vigorous and to remain in the company of friends and loved ones to participate in the unfolding of the future, would, when push came to shove, choose this latter alternative. Because these cloned stem cells are genetically identical to the patient, the tissues or organs they would produce could be implanted without eliciting an immune response from the patient’s body, thereby overcoming a major hurdle in transplant medicine. Chronique d'une prise de conscience - Revue de presse alternative épinglée par Only in extreme and unusual cases might state infringement of procreative liberty be justified. Transhumanism is a way of thinking about the future that is based on the premise that the human species in its current form does not represent the end of our development but rather a comparatively early phase.. Transhumanism is a loosely defined movement that has developed gradually over the past two decades. a lack of sufficient selfish incentives for people to make sacrifices to reduce an existential risk. High-tech industry is typically relatively benign. Still others – for instance pharmacological mood drugs or sex reassignment surgery – are suitable only for people who have special difficulties or needs. In its original 1965-formulation by Intel co-founder Gordon Moore, it stated that the number of components on a chip doubled every year. While not a religion, transhumanism might serve a few of the same functions that people have traditionally sought in religion. Your help is needed. In this sense there can be real problems that need to be tackled. Could they even cause our extinction?”. Because the ramifications of nanotechnology are immense, it is imperative that serious thought be given to this topic now. an early detection system for dangerous near-earth objects on potential collation course with Earth, or the commissioning of advance peer review of planned high-energy physics experiments – are probably cost-effective. Needless to say, we should also promote non-technological developments that are beneficial in almost all scenarios, such as peace and international cooperation. Cleverly designed chemical building blocks might be made to self-assemble in solution phase into machine parts. In addition to scholarly studies of the threats and their possible countermeasures, public awareness must be raised to enable a more informed debate of our long-term options. Questions, thoughts, ideas, and such, can be sent to the same address, or to the discussion group on Google Groups. Ordinary life is sometimes boring. in Derek Parfit’s work on personal identity, they have still not been resolved to general satisfaction. Provided that we manage to avoid destroying civilization, Vinge thinks that a singularity is likely to happen as a consequence of advances in artificial intelligence, large systems of networked computers, computer-human integration, or some other form of intelligence amplification. The formation of damaging ice crystals can even be suppressed altogether in a process known as vitrification, in which the patient’s body is turned into a kind of glass. For example, health, cognitive abilities, and emotional well-being are valued by most people for their own sake. Historia del odio a España". Could they even cause our extinction? In the 1970s and 1980s, several organizations sprung up for life extension, cryonics, space colonization, science fiction, media arts, and futurism. Personal inclinations regarding uploading differ. More than ten years after the publication of Nanosystems, nobody has yet been able to point to any significant error in the calculations. A sufficiently long-lived human who didn’t make any errors and had a sufficient stack of scrap paper at hand could in principle compute any Turing computable function. Ed Regis (1990, p. 97) suggests the following points also be considered: Transhumanism is not about a fancier car, more money, or clever gadgetry, even though this is what the media presents to us as “science” and “advanced technology”; transhumanism is about genuine changes to the human condition, including increased intelligence and minds better suited to the achievement of happiness. The Greeks were ambivalent about humans transgressing our natural confines. Biological warfare. et … Voir plus d'idées sur le thème joseph albers, musée d'art, centre pompidou paris. You could potentially live much more economically as an upload since you wouldn’t need physical food, housing, transportation, etc. How does transhumanism relate to religion? An atomic force microscope can drag individual atoms along a surface. Entrevistamos a Alberto G. Ibáñez, autor del libro "La leyenda negra. With many potentially transforming technologies already available and others in the pipeline, it is clear that there will be a large scope for human augmentation. Could they even cause our extinction?”). Two physicists at IBM Almaden Labs in California illustrated this in 1989 when they used such a microscope to arrange 35 xenon atoms to spell out the trademark “I-B-M”, creating the world’s smallest logo. The 1017 IPS estimate is obtained by multiplying the number of neurons in a human brain (~100 billion) with the average number of synapses per neuron (~1,000) and with the average spike rate (~100 Hz), and assuming ~10 instructions to represent the effect on one action potential traversing one synapse. We could construct artificial experiential worlds, in which the laws of physics can be suspended, that would appear as real as physical reality to participants. This strand of transhumanism advocates both the right to use technology to transcend the limitations of the human body and the extension of democratic concerns beyond formal legal equality and liberty, into economic and cultural liberty and equality, in order to protect values such as equality, solidarity, and democratic participation in a transhuman context (Hughes 2002). There is no “it” that everything hinges on. Non-local modulators such as neurotransmitter concentrations and hormone balances may also need to be represented, although such parameters likely contain much less data than the neuronal network itself. You could travel at the speed of light as an information pattern, which could be convenient in a future age of large-scale space settlements. Some natural things are bad, such as starvation, polio, and being eaten alive by intestinal parasites. Many others have over the years offered questions or reflections that have in some way helped shape this document, and even though it is not possible to name you all, your contributions are warmly appreciated. Recentment s’ha celebrat la reunió del Consell pel Futur d’Europa a Madrid. Cas confirmés, mortalité, guérisons, toutes les statistiques It is unclear why anybody who has had enhancement body parts or a nomadic lifestyle is any closer to becoming a posthuman than the rest of us; nor, of course, are such persons necessarily more admirable or morally commendable than others. Another concern that becomes paramount is the need to build a world order in which dangerous arms races can be prevented and in which the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction can be suppressed or at least delayed until effective defenses have been developed (see “Aren’t these future technologies very risky?